No *(unless battery is higher voltage), the starter will pull from the battery what it requires. That's like saying your wall outlet at home can supply enough power for 1000W microwave and so will be too strong and burn up your 5W phone charger. Think of *current as a rope, it can only be pulled and not pushed. If the load on the starter is too high, then maybe it'll pull too much current from the battery and burn up the starter.
Have seen non computer controlled vehicles hooked to two 12 volt batters for starting with no adverse effect on starter
It did however fry the radio on one guy
Burning up starter is from gunning it slow or for prolonged periods of time
Key stuck in start can quickly fry started with that special burnt electric smell
Running slow makes for less back emf and higher current draw, and power which makes heat is Current squared times resistance
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