so, I feel like this is a trick question or a joke but I will bite...
The ring gear is what the actual arrow next to where it says "ring gear" is touching. The ring gear is bolted to the right side (as you are looking at it) of what I am going to call the flange of the carrier.
Depends on your orientation, that's why you say "ring gear side". In the picture ring gear side is the left side, but if you switch orientation it would be the right side. When setting up gears you refer to it as ring gear or non ring gear side that way you can determine which side no matter your orientation.
This is especially important when working with the axle on stands, you may not always be working in the same orientation.
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